# Wave and Photon Models of Electromagnetic Radiation

The dual nature of electromagnetic radiation is described by two complementary models: the wave model and the photon model. These models help explain the various behaviors of light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

The photon model states that electromagnetic radiation travels in discrete packets called photons, which carry energy directly proportional to their frequency. This model is expressed by the equation E = hf, where E is the photon energy, h is Planck's constant, and f is the frequency.

**Definition**: The photon model describes electromagnetic radiation as discrete packets of energy called photons, with energy proportional to frequency.

On the other hand, the wave model describes electromagnetic radiation as a transverse wave. This model explains phenomena such as diffraction and interference.

**Highlight**: The wave-particle duality of light was established through various experiments, including diffraction and the photoelectric effect.

The development of these models reflects the historical progression in understanding the nature of light. Initially believed to be composed of particles, light was later shown to exhibit wave-like behavior through diffraction experiments. The discovery of the photoelectric effect then led to the realization that light could act as both a wave and a particle, culminating in the concept of **wave-particle duality**.